Francis Pryor is a British archaeologist and the period he specialises in is the Bronze Age ie what is known as ‘prehistory’, but his knowledge and interest stretches from the first humans who occupied Britain (recently evidence has been found that this stretches back 900,000 years), right up to the end of the middle ages (which included Chaucer but not Shakespeare, if you are of a literary rather than historical bent). Pryor has written archaeological books that cover British history across this entire range including Britain BC, Britain AD, Britain in the Middle Ages and a book about landscape history. This is the period that I myself have been exploring for the last few years, though my primary interest is the Anglo-Saxons. Pryor’s main focus is archaeology in landscape, and he lives in East Anglia, which I would point to as his landscape ‘centre’.
Conversely my main interest started with Old English poetry (eg Beowulf) and the Anglo-Saxon period when it was written, and Yorkshire, where I have lived since I was 14, is what I would describe as my landscape ‘centre’. From the starting point of poems like The Wanderer, The Seafarer, Wulf and Eadwacer, The Wife’s Lament and The Dream of the Rood – which I came across about 15 years ago in a small anthology edited and translated by Richard Hamer – I’ve moved on to exlore archaeology and history, which never held much interest to me when I was young (I dropped history at school in favour of geography when we had to make our O’ Level subject choices). The reason that I discovered this poetry was due to my affinity with those words in modern English that have their roots in Old English, ie my interest in the origins of words (etymology). I was also fascinated by the Old English language that these poems are written in, though I have tried and largely failed to learn this precursor of modern English, having to rely on dictionaries, glosses and grammars if attempting to read the poems I mentioned above in the original.
My interest in the history of the English language has led me to my own theory about the Anglo-Saxon ‘invasion’ that is supposed to have occurred after the Romans left Britain, and a lot of my reading of archaeology and history of the period is bent on exploring the puzzle of where English came from. My personal theory is that the Anglo-Saxons cannot have brought the English language with them and imposed it on the native Britons because that isn’t how language works; the language and the people who spoke it must have been present on the east side of Britain even before the Romans came, perhaps arriving over the ‘land bridge’ 10,000 years ago that connected the east side of Britain with North West Europe. There are archaeologists and other experts whose ideas provide support for this theory, though they are still in a (now growing) minority, and one of these people is Francis Pryor (another notable name is Stephen Oppenheimer, whose ideas I came across first, and I will be looking at his book in a future post). I find this area of research very exciting, and it is the reason I have set up this category on my blog, to explore these ideas about the history of our land, its peoples and the English language, that the experts touch on in their books.
Three years ago I visited Flag Fen near Peterborough, which was, is and will be one of Pryor’s lasting contributions to educating us the public on the people who once lived in England. This includes a building erected over archaeological remains that are still in situ, a reconstruction of stone and bronze age houses, and a visitor centre, on the site of a bronze age settlement that Francis Pryor excavated in the 80s with his team of archaeologists. The main focus of Flag Fen is the causeways crossing the marshes that Pryor himself first discovered in 1982, but recently eight bronze age log boats were found a couple of miles away in a quarry, which are now being conserved at Flag Fen, so this venue has become even more appealing for visitors – as we the public have a deeper affection for boats than causeways (there are set times each day when you can watch the experts working on the conservation of the log boats – due to take two years).
So Pryor has written books (which I will look at in more detail in a future post) and set up a Bronze Age centre, but he has also contributed to TV programmes such as Time Team (which features a different archaeological dig each time, if you’ve never seen it), meaning he is a recognised media figure to those of us who watch archaeological history on UK TV. He has also written and narrated a series of three programmes about the end of the Roman period and the beginning of the Anglo-Saxon period called ‘Britain AD: King Arthur’s Britain’. This is available on 4oD (the UK’s Channel Four On Demand service) and I recommend it highly if you haven’t seen it. The last episode in particular focuses on the idea that there was a ‘cultural exchange’ of ideas and artefacts between areas of eastern England and North West Europe (Scandinavia, Germany, Holland, France) during the early Anglo-Saxon period, rather than an invasion. This is not an entirely new idea amongst archaeologists working today, but it is not what the textbooks say about the period.
Pryor’s approach, though clearly rejecting the invasion theory, is still quite tentative. In the programme he talks to different experts (eg a linguist) with different conflicting theories. I personally think that his private views are likely more decisive, but he is aware that because this is not his period of expertise, and the majority of Anglo-Saxonists still believe in the invasion theory or at the very least a taking of power by a migrating elite from the continent, he cannot tread on too many toes. It seems that none of the experts yet feels like putting their neck on the block and saying there was no invasion, there was no take-over, the Romano-British peasants became the Anglo-Saxons.
In my next post I will discuss the TV programme and Pryor’s ideas about the ‘Dark Ages’ in more detail, and over the next few months I am hoping to look at the ideas of some of the many other researchers in this field that I have managed to discover from my reading. But I am also hoping readers of this blog may know about unpublished research that I am not aware of (archaeologists are notoriously slow at publishing their work – sometimes it takes them twenty years of more – which is frustrating). I am also not able to afford the price of many of the new books that are coming out that focus on the ‘dark ages’ so if you have read them I would love to know about that too. I think this period is exciting because it is controversial – there will be lots of people who think my theory is flying in the face of the evidence, and I have to admit it was initially a gut reaction, an instinct – that the invasion theory couldn’t be correct. So we shall see! I’m hoping this will get sorted out one way or the other in the next few years (eg with the help of genetic data), and then I am expecting that all the history textbooks will have to be rewritten – which is what Francis Pryor argues.